UMT Education Review (UER)

Volume I, Issue II, 2018

Research Articles

A Child on Crossroad of Two Isolated Worlds
Dr. Abdul Hameed, Dr. Afaf Manzoor

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An ever-increasing focus on out-of-school children may bring a new challenge to the already shaky system of schooling in Pakistan. A sustained segregatory and exclusionary way of thinking even at the highest ministerial level has given birth to two separate worlds; general education and special education. The habitat of both worlds follows different sets of beliefs about education, children, teaching and learning, pedagogy and assessment. The interaction between these communities has remained sorrowfully minimal. As the push to enroll every child in school with a target of “No child left behind” has increased, it has become even more difficult for parents and families to choose an appropriate school for children with disabilities. Often, the closest mainstream school treats them as aliens, whereas an alternative or special school may be up to 12km away from the child leaving few or no option for parents to send their children with disabilities to school. As the Punjab government has taken a forward step for inclusive education in two districts, it has become more obvious that there are many challenges in creating realistic accommodations for children with special needs in “mainstream schools”. This concept paper has explored the gaps both in theory and practice that may hinder the inclusion of all children in their neighborhood schools.
Keywords: children with disabilities, inclusive education, Out of school children, segregation, special education.


Resilience: An Emic Perspective of Adolescents with Disabilities from Segregated and Integrated Schools
Misbah Shafique Abbasi, Dr. Rubina Hanif

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Education creates opportunities for marginalized communities to win emancipation from the hardships of life. Adolescents with disabilities are at a severe disadvantage in many parts of the world, especially Pakistan. Literature provides very little information about the personal perceptions and opinions of adolescents with disabilities about their school life. The current study aimed to explore the dynamics of resilience (ability to bounce back) from the emic perspective of adolescents with disabilities in both segregated (special) and integrated (mainstream) schools. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing resilience were explored using a qualitative research design. Three rounds of semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents with disabilities (N=13) from both segregated (n=9) and integrated (n=4) schools. The data obtained was analyzed through the Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The results revealed that all participants of the study possessed basic characteristics of resilience including recovery, active coping, positive emotionality and social connectedness. Further in-depth analysis indicated a marked difference between the approach of segregated and integrated schools determined by supportive factors in recovery, problems faced in daily functioning due to disability, reasons for social connectedness, purpose in life and self-reliance. From the findings it is evident that the school environment, teachers’ cooperation and peer support are key distinguishing factors among the two groups under study. School support is very important for personal as well as well as psycho-social development of adolescents with disabilities.
Keywords: adolescents, emic perspective, integrated schools, resilience, segregated schools.


The Role of Architecture in the Identification of Obstacles and Spatial Solutions to Inclusive Education
Ayesha M. Malik, Memona Rashid, M. Yousaf Awan, Iram Batool Alvi

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Education is the basic right of every child. However, there are many barriers to education for children with special needs. These special needs are due to their physical or physiological make up and are the reason they often feel desolated, mostly due to the lack of educational facilities required to fulfil those needs that should be available for all. This conceptual paper attempts to outline the term ‘inclusive education’ in terms of the democratic principles established by the international community. The paper also attempts to discuss Pakistan’s progress in adopting inclusive education by analyzing the current institutional framework of the education sector and infrastructure constraints in mainstream schools. Various case studies about educational centers in Pakistan’s urban hubs have been analyzed also to learn more about the impediments in this regard. Moreover, data has been collected from 25 districts of Punjab to learn about the current status of public schools and to know whether or not they have been transformed into inclusive schools. Findings show that building design is a major barrier among other challenges. Building layout of an inclusive school has been presented as a model for making existing schools more inclusive for students with various disabilities, so that benefits of inclusion are drawn not only by the disabled but also by mainstream students.
Keywords: architectural solutions, educational obstacles, inclusive education, spatial layouts.


Issues Faced by Working Mothers in Lahore and the Impact of Job Stress on their Relationship with their Adolescent Children
Asifa Sohail, Afza Imtiaz, Safia Iqbal

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges faced by working mothers as they struggle to fulfill the tasks of parenthood and employment in effective ways and the impact of job stressors on their relationship with their adolescent children. The study is qualitative in nature. Data was collected from twenty mother-adolescent dyads; ten working mother-adolescent dyads and ten stay-at-home mother-adolescent dyads were selected from a school in Lahore. Semi-structured interviews and empirical analysis of documents were employed to collect the data. Qualitative interpretive analysis was used to analyze the data and to explore the adolescent-mother relationship and the associated factors which influence this relationship. The study concluded that there was no difference in intimacy and companionship measure of working and non-working mothers with their adolescent children. However, monitoring appeared to be minor in working mothers. The study is expected to help in creating programs and policies that improve the work-life balance of working mothers and families and foster adolescent adjustment in the society.
Keywords: adolescent children, adjustment, job-stress, working mothers.


The Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies and their Effects on Academic Achievement of Students – A Case Study
Nargis Nadeem, Irfana Omar

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The purpose of this study was to identify the types of reading strategies used by first year college students for reading different materials and their effects on students’ academic performance/achievement. The sample of the study consisted of 269 first year students of different departments of Arts and Humanities group at Government College (Wahdat Road), Lahore. IELTS’ Reading Comprehension Test (Academic/General) was used to assess the reading comprehension skills of students. Meta Comprehension Strategy Index (MCSI) by Schmitt (1990) was used to assess the level of awareness and the use of reading comprehension strategies. Data was analyzed using SPSS and was graphically presented to provide a clear understanding of results which indicated the lack of awareness about reading comprehension strategies as a key factor leading to the poor performance of students in the reading comprehension test. The study contributes scholarly in the existing literature by accentuating the need to make instruction about reading strategies compulsory in English language classrooms. It will increase the academic success of students and will also provide them with better job opportunities in future.
Keywords: cognitive reading strategies, metacognitive reading strategies, RCT (Reading comprehension Test), RSQ (Reading Strategy Questionnaire).

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